Multiprocessing for Signals example script (10x improvement)


I rewrote the Signals example script. Improvements are the following:

  • use multiprocessing to add indicators
  • save stock data to parquet file format and download the delta only
  • use np.float32 instead of np.float64 for memory optimization

It does the same thing, but a lot faster…
You can get it here: GitHub - nemethpeti/Signals

Note, that just by changeing the seed of the boosted tree changes the resulting mean corr and sharpe. You can ignore that, this just something to start with.

Have fun!


This looks awesome, should definitely become the new example script

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So good, thank you! Especially love the download of delta only!

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Looks like RSI10*** was hard coded in a number of places, so if one changes the interval the code breaks? I’ve tried to change it using f-strings (like below) but still can’t get the code to run completely:


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Yup :slight_smile:
That’s exacly what I’m working on now. Trying to add more indicators with more timeframes…

If you have a cleaner version, please post it here!

Great! This is what I have so far. Not the best (I’m a poor coder). If I knew how to use git and GitHub properly I would do a pull request there. :slight_smile:

import numerapi
# a fork of yfinance that implements retries nicely
# pip install -e git+
import yfinance
import simplejson

import numpy as np
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import pandas as pd
import requests as re
from datetime import datetime, timedelta
from dateutil.relativedelta import relativedelta, FR
from sklearn.ensemble import GradientBoostingRegressor

from multiprocessing import Pool, cpu_count

import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import plotly.graph_objects as go
import as px
import as pio
pio.renderers.default = 'svg'
import plotly
from functools import partial

napi = numerapi.SignalsAPI()
# In[download]

days_lagged = 5
interval = 15

def load_data(download=False):
    full_data = pd.read_parquet('full_data.prq')
    last_date = full_data.index.max().date().strftime('%Y-%m-%d')
    # download
    if download == True:
        # read in yahoo to numerai ticker map, still a work in progress, h/t wsouza
        ticker_map = pd.read_csv('')
        ticker_map.to_csv('signals_ticker_map_w_bbg.csv', index=False)
        print(f"Number of tickers in map: {len(ticker_map)}")
        # read in list of active Signals tickers which can change slightly era to era
        eligible_tickers = pd.Series(napi.ticker_universe(), name='numerai_ticker')
        print(f"Number of eligible tickers: {len(eligible_tickers)}")
        # map eligible numerai tickers to yahoo finance tickers
        yfinance_tickers =['bloomberg_ticker'], ticker_map['yahoo']))).dropna()
        numerai_tickers = ticker_map['bloomberg_ticker']
        print(f'Number of eligible, mapped tickers: {len(yfinance_tickers)}')
        # download new data
        new_data =' '), start=last_date, threads=True)
        new_data = new_data['Adj Close'].stack().reset_index()
        # properly position and clean raw data, after taking adjusted close only
        new_data.columns = ['date', 'ticker', 'price']
        new_data.set_index('date', inplace=True)
        # convert yahoo finance tickers back to numerai tickers
        new_data['numerai_ticker'] =['yahoo'], numerai_tickers)))
        full_data = pd.concat([full_data, new_data])
    print('Data downloaded.')
    print(f"Number of tickers with data: {len(full_data.numerai_ticker.unique())}")   
    return full_data

#df = load_data(download=True)

def RSI(df, interval=10):

    delta = df['price'].diff()

    dUp, dDown = delta.copy(), delta.copy()
    dUp[dUp < 0] = 0
    dDown[dDown > 0] = 0

    RolUp = dUp.rolling(interval).mean()
    RolDown = dDown.rolling(interval).mean().abs()

    RS = RolUp / RolDown
    RSI = 100.0 - (100.0 / (1.0 + RS))
    df[f'RSI{interval}'] = RSI
    return df

def quantile(df, source, target):
    df[target] = pd.qcut(df[source], 5, labels=False, duplicates='drop')
    return df

def add_lagged(df, source, lags):
    for lag in lags:
        df[f'{source}_lagged_{lag}'] = df[source].shift(lag)
    return df

def applyParallel(df, func, groupby, **kwargs):
    ticker_groups = df.groupby(groupby)
    fixed_func=partial(func, **kwargs)
    with Pool(cpu_count()) as p:
        ret_list =, [group for name, group in ticker_groups])
    return pd.concat(ret_list)

def addDiffs(df, num_days, name='RSI_quintile_lag'):
    # create difference of the lagged features and absolute difference of the lagged features (change in RSI quintile by day)
    for day in range(num_days):
        df[f'{name}_diff_{day}'] = df[f'{name}_{day}'] - df[f'{name}_{day + 1}']
        df[f'{name}_abs_diff_{day}'] = np.abs( df[f'{name}_{day}'] - df[f'{name}_{day + 1}'])
    return df

def add_indicators(df):
    print('Calculating RSI')
    df = applyParallel(df, RSI, 'ticker', interval=15)
    #df = applyParallel(df, RSI, 'ticker', interval=50)
    print('Calculating Quantiles')
    df = applyParallel(df, quantile, df.index, source=f'RSI{interval}', target=f'RSI{interval}_quantile')
    print('Adding lags')
    df = applyParallel(df, add_lagged, 'ticker', source=f'RSI{interval}_quantile', lags=range(days_lagged))

    print('Adding diffs')
    df = addDiffs(df, 5, f'RSI{interval}_quantile_lagged')

    return df
def plotPriceSubplot(df, col):

    fig = plotly.subplots.make_subplots(rows=2, cols=1, row_heights=[0.7, 0.3], shared_xaxes=True, vertical_spacing=0.1)
    fig.add_trace(go.Scatter(x=df.index, y=df.price, name="Price"), row=1, col=1)
    fig.add_trace(go.Scatter(x=df.index, y=df[col], name=col), row=2, col=1)

# In[main]
if __name__ == '__main__':

    df = load_data()
    df = add_indicators(df)

# In[figures]

    #plotdf = df.loc[(df.ticker == 'AAPL') & (df.index > '2021-01-01')]
    #plotPriceSubplot(plotdf, 'RSI10')
    TARGET_NAME = 'target'
    PREDICTION_NAME = 'signal'
        targets = pd.read_csv('historical_targets.csv')
    except FileNotFoundError:
        targets = pd.read_csv('historical_targets.csv')    
    targets['date'] = pd.to_datetime(targets['friday_date'], format='%Y%m%d')    
    targets.rename(columns={"bloomberg_ticker": "numerai_ticker"}, inplace=True)    
    # merge our feature data with Numerai targets
    data = pd.merge(df.reset_index(), targets, on=['date', 'numerai_ticker']).set_index('date')
    print(f'Number of eras in data: {len(data.index.unique())}')
    # for training and testing we want clean, complete data only
    data = data[data.index.weekday == 4]  # ensure we have only fridays
    data = data[data.index.value_counts() > 50]  # drop eras with under 50 observations per era
    # define column names of features, target, and prediction

    features = []
    features += [c for c in df if c.startswith(f'RSI{interval}_qu')]
    features += [c for c in df if c.startswith(f'RSI{interval}_diff')]
    features += [c for c in df if c.startswith(f'RSI{interval}_abs_diff')]

    print(f'Features for training:\n {features}')

    # train test split
    train = data[data['data_type'] == 'train']
    val = data[data['data_type'] == 'validation']
    # train model
    print("Training model...")
    model = GradientBoostingRegressor(subsample=0.1, random_state=42)[features], train[TARGET_NAME])
    print("Model trained.")

    # predict test data
    val[PREDICTION_NAME] = model.predict(val[features])

    # predict live data
    # choose data as of most recent friday
    last_friday = + relativedelta(weekday=FR(-1))
    date_string = last_friday.strftime('%Y-%m-%d')
        live = df.loc[date_string].copy()
    except KeyError as e:
        print(f"No ticker on {e}")
        live = df.iloc[:0].copy()
    live.dropna(subset=features, inplace=True)

    # get data from the day before, for markets that were closed
    # on the most recent friday
    last_thursday = last_friday - timedelta(days=1)
    thursday_date_string = last_thursday.strftime('%Y-%m-%d')
    thursday_data = df.loc[thursday_date_string]
    # Only select tickers than aren't already present in live_data
    thursday_data = thursday_data[~thursday_data.ticker.isin(live.ticker.values)].copy()
    thursday_data.dropna(subset=features, inplace=True)
    live = pd.concat([live, thursday_data])
    print(f"Number of live tickers to submit: {len(live)}")
    live[PREDICTION_NAME] = model.predict(live[features])

    # prepare and writeout example file
    diagnostic_df = pd.concat([val, live])
    diagnostic_df['friday_date'] = diagnostic_df.friday_date.fillna(last_friday.strftime('%Y%m%d')).astype(int)
    diagnostic_df['data_type'] = diagnostic_df.data_type.fillna('live')
    diagnostic_df = diagnostic_df.sort_values(by=['ticker', 'friday_date'])
    diagnostic_df[['numerai_ticker', 'friday_date', 'data_type', 'signal']].reset_index(drop=True).to_csv('new_Joakim_signal_upload.csv', index=False)
    print('Submission completed.')       

I’m glad you didn’t do a pull request, because I have no idea, how to handle it :smiley:

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